Background: Breast-feeding is a very natural and normal way designed by God. Breastfeeding is feeding child human breast milk which is preferred for all infants. Although lactation is an automatic physiological process, breastfeeding is a learned behavior that is most successful in supportive environment. This study aimed to assess knowledge of mothers concerning infant and young child breastfeeding, and to use the results as baseline for nutritional intervention programs in the future.
Subjects and Methods: A study carried out by interviewing mother at Primary Health Centers to assess mothers breastfeeding knowledge regarding breastfeeding initiation, colostrums use ,exclusivity, duration and extraction of breastmilk, and find the relationship between mothers knowledge and educational levels, family type.
Results: (17.5 %) of mothers know that first breast feeding have to be initiated during the 1st hour of child life. (40.4%) of mothers don’t know the importance of colostrums for newborn. (41.1%) of mothers don’t know that child needs 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. (46.8 %) of mothers don’t agree on breast milk extraction while (35.7%) of them don’t know that breast-milk can be expressed. There was relation between mother knowledge age and education level.
Conclusion: mothers have weak knowledge regarding early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, so breastfeeding promotion, protection and support by health professions necessary for mothers in Erbil.
1. Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) (Somalia Food Security Analysis Unit) ,Somali Knowledge Attitude Practices Study (KAPS) Infant and Young Child Feeding and Health Seeking Practices, FCND Discussion paper No.146. 2007; Accessed February 4 , 2009 at http://www.fsausomali.org.
2. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID ,Infant and Young Child Feeding Update. Calverton, Maryland, USA,ORC Macro, 2006, Accessed May 12 ,2008 at :http://www.measurdhs.com.
3. Littleton L, Englebretson J, Maternal, New natal, and women’s health Nursing, ), Lactation and Nursing Support , Canada, Thomson learning, 2002, p957-1116.
4. United Nations Children’s Fund , Ministry of Health- Iraq, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey volum 1: page-19 final report Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. Implementing agencies: Central Organization for Statistics and Information Technology, Kurdistan Regional Statistics Office, 2006. Accessed February1,2008 at www.childinfo.org.
5 .United Nation Children’s Fund ,Statistical Tables, J The State of the Worlds Children Maternal and Newborn Health , NewYork,NY ,10017, USA, 2009.Accessed January 4, 2008 at http://unicef.org.
6. Cozby P, Methods in Behavioral Research, Boston, McGrawHill; 2005. 9th ed, p.139.
7. Polit D, and Beck CH, Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence for
Nursing Practice, Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.8thed p.463- 90,571,750.
8 . Baisch M, Fox R, Goldberg B, Breast-feeding attitudes and practices among adolescents. J Adolesc Health Care. 1989; 10(1): 41- 5.
9. Malla K, Malla T, Manandhar D, Knowledge attitude and practices of mothers regarding breast feeding: A hospital based study.[Online] Journal of Nepal Pediatric Society, 2007; (1):9-15. Accessed March 19 ,2008, at http//www.popline,org./docs/324072.
Background and objectives: Abdominal fat is associated with a greater risk of obesity-related morbidity than overall adiposity. Waist circumference has been shown to be the best simple measure of both intra-abdominal fat mass and total fat. The aim of this study was to measure the waist circumference of the medical college students as an indicator of the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to correlate it with the students’ ages and college grades.
Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried using sample of 500 students of Hawler Medical University in Erbil city during the period from 1st of May through to 31st of July 2008. The WHO stepwise approach had been followed for measuring the waist circumferences of the participants.
Results: Five hundred students were studied. The mean (± SD) age of the subjects was 21.39 ± 2.84 years ranging from 17 to 35 years. Regardless of gender, the prevalence of overweight was 16.1% and obesity was 5.1%. Prevalence of overweight (21.8%) and obesity (6.1%) among female students was higher than overweight (10.3%) and obesity (4.1%) among male students. Overweight (50%) and obesity (16.7%) were more common among female students in the age group of ≥ 26 than the other age groups and the other gender as well. There was significant correlation between prevalence of overweight and obesity with the students’ grades (P=0.027) and genders (P<0.001).
Conclusions: This study concluded that the prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher in female students than male students increasing with the age of the students. Healthy eating behaviors and adequate physical activity for prevention of obesity among college students had been recommended.
During delivery both mother and baby particularly vulnerable to infection, care must be taken to observe aseptic technique when preparing sterile equipment. So standard precautions are necessary to reduce the risk of blood borne and other pathogens.
Aim of this study is to assess health care providers' practices concerning infection control in the selected delivery rooms.
Subjects and Methods:
A descriptive study was conducted in three delivery rooms, which were located in Maternity Teaching Hospital in Hawler, Suleimania, and Maternity Department /Azadi Teaching Hospital in Duhok during the period 1st of December / 2007 to 1st of November / 2008. A convenience sample of 103 Health Care Providers was included in the study; Data were collected by using questionnaire interview forms and observational checklists.
Health Care Providers practices in Duhok Azadi Hospital Maternity Unit were better than those of other two cities: concerning hand washing and clothing.
There was inconsistency in Health Care Providers practices regarding infection control in the selected delivery rooms. Therefore, these practices have to be improved.
Key words; Assessment, Infection control, Practices, Health care providers.
1-Braunwald,E.,Isselbacher,K.J.,Peterdorf,R.G.,WilsonJ.D.,Martin,J.B and Fauci,A.S. Harrison’s principles of internal Medicine, 11thedition, Mc Graw-Hill Book Co. New York; 1987.p.p 470-73.
2-Tasota, F.J, Fisher, E.M., Coulson, C.F. and Hoffman L .A. Protecting ICU patients from Nosocomial Infections; practical Measures for Favorable Outcomes, J Critical care nurse,; 1998,18 (1); p.p 54-67.
3-Case. L., Hand washing, USA, National health museum, 1996. (Accessed on 23/2/2008 at http:// www.accessexcellence.org )
4-Ayliffe, A. and English. P., Hospital infection, 1st edition Cambridge university press,.2003.
5-Adwar B., Nosocomial infections in respiratory care unit at the surgical specialization teaching hospital in Baghdad, (master thesis), college of medicine, university of Baghdad. 2005
6-Talabani J., Assessment of Kurdistan hospital for the purpose of implementing of emergency maternal Child Health with essential surgical skills course (EMCH-ESS), 2006; P.p 3-7
7- Center of Disease control,.Infection control, (2007) (Accessed on 11/11/2007; at http://www.cdc.gov)
8- Pittet D., and Boyce J.M., Hand hygiene and patient care: pursuing the Semmelweis Legacy, Lancet infect Dis; 2001, p.p 1:9-20.
9-Reeder S; Martin L.and Griffin Deborab.Maternity nursing family, newborn and woman health care, 18th edition, Philadelphia.Lippincott Co,;1997 , p.p 1028-35.
10-Karadey S., Derbentl, S., Nakipoglu, Y., Esenf., .Hand washing frequencies in an intensive care unit, J.Hosp.infect. 2002, 50(1); p.p 36-41
11- Garner ,J.S.,Jarvis W.R.,Emori T.G.,Horan T.C.,and Hughes J.M.CDC .Definition for nosocomial infection in Olmsted R.N:APIC Infection Control and Applied Epidemiology :principles and practices St.Lousi; Mosby; 2002 P.p 1-20.
12-Mast ST., Woolwine J., and Gerberding JL., Efficacy of gloves in reducing blood volumes transferred during simulated needles stick injury, 1993(Accessed on 3/11/2008 at /flu/proyect/covercough.htm. ) http://www.cdc.gov
13-Gary A. and Lance R. Engineering infection control trough facility design, Chicago, Illinors. (2001). (accessed on 12/11/2007 , at http;//www.cdc.gov).
14-Frank ,.Indoor air quality standards in hospital. 2003 (Accessed on 3/2/2008 ) http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/r2k0306c.htm
15-Centers for Disease Control and prevention . Guideline for infection control in Health care personnel.. 2006 (accessed on 10/12/2007, at. http;//www.cdc.gov).
16-Fraser M. Diana; Cooper A. Margaret, Myles textbook for midwives, 14th Edition, United Kingdom, Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p.p 497-99.
17-Hoffman V., Infection control, National center of continuing education, Phladelphia, Lippincott, 2004, P: 19
18-Rao S., Hospital Administration, structural requirements for infection control in hospitals, J Hospital infection,2004 16(2). p.13
19-Burrougs A., and Leifer G., Maternity Nursing, 8th edition, Phladelphia, Pennsylvania, W.B.Saunders Co., 2001, p.p 111-13.