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Key words: Misoprostol, missed abortion, uterine hyper stimulation.
1. Baker PN, Johnson I., Jones G, Kean L, Kenny LC, Mires G et al. Second trimester miscarriage. Baker PN. Obstetrics by ten teachers. London. Edward Arnold. 2006. 18th edition. pp116-124.
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4. Ramsey PS, Savage K, Lincoln T, Owen J . Vaginal misoprostol versus concentrated oxytocin and vaginal PGE2 for second-trimester labor induction.J Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104:138–45.
5.Cunningham FG ,Leveno KJ ,Bloom SL ,Hauth JC ,Gilstrap L .Williams Obstetrics. Mc Graw Hill. USA. 2005. 22th edition. pp231-248.
6. Ramos LS, Delke I .Induction of labor and pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. In: James DK, Steer PhJ, Weiner CP and Conik B. (ed).High risk pregnancy (management options). USA. 2006. 3rd edition. pp1404- 1418.
7. Dickinson JE, Evans SF .The optimization of intravaginal misoprostol dosing schedules in second-trimester pregnancy termination. Is J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;
8. Bebbington MW, Kent N, Lim K, Gagnon A, Delisle MF. A randomized controlled trial comparing two protocols for the use of misoprostol in midtrimester pregnancy termination. Am J.Obstet Gynecol. 2002 ; 187:853–857.
9. Feldman DM, Borgida AF, Rodis JF, Leo MV, and Campbell WA. A randomized comparison of two regimens of misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy termination. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 2003 ; 189: 710-3.
10.Tang OS, Schweer H, Seyberth HW, Lee SW and Ho PC .Pharmacokinetics of different routes of administration of misoprostol. Hum Reprod. 2002 ;17:332–336.
11. Scheepers HCJ, van Erp EJM, van den Bergh AS. Use of misoprostol in first and second trimester abortion: a review. Obstet Gynecol Survey. 1999. ;54(9) pp592-600.
12. Gilbert A, Reid R .A randomized trial of oral versus vaginal administration of misoprostol for the purpose of mid-trimester termination of pregnancy. Aust. N.Z.J. obstetr.Gynecol; 2001. 41:407-410.
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14. Aronsson A, Bygdeman M and Gemzell-Danielsson K. Effects of misoprostol on uterine contractility following different routes of administration. Hum Reprod. 2004; 19(1):pp81–84
15. Dickinson JE, Evans SF . A comparison of oral misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol administration in second-trimester pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.J Obstet.Gynecol. 2003; 101:1294-9
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Key words: Estimated fetal weight, Hadlock formula, Small for gestational age, newborn weight, Macrosomia.
1.American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Fetal macrosomia. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 22. Washington DC. 2000
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4.Anne D, Walling MD, Chien PF, et al. Validity of ultrasound estimation of fetal weight. Obstet Gynecol.2000; 95:856-60.
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6.Firoozabadi RD, Ghasemi N, Firoozabadi MD. Sonographic fetal weight estimation using femoral length: Honarvar equation. Ann Saudi Med. 2007; 27:179-82
7.Chien PF, et al. Validity of ultrasound estimation of fetal weight. Obstet Gynecol .2000; 95: 856-60.
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Conclusions Our study showed that stab wounds and gunshots constitute the main cause of penetrating chest trauma in our area. Placing chest tubes on continuous low pressure suction helps evacuation of blood, expansion of lung and prevents the development of clotted haemothorax. It also reduces the time to removal of chest drains and the hospital stay.
Background: Typhoid fever is an endemic infectious disease in Sulaimanyia city in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Last years we observe there are remarkable haematological changes associated with this disease. Pancytopenia was one of these changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of bone marrow study in typhoid fever with pancytopenia.
Methods: In this prospective study only culture positive enteric fever patients were taken. For all patients CBC and blood Film were done. Bone marrow study including aspirate and biopsy was done for all patients with peripheral blood pancytopenia.
Result: Two thousands culture positive enteric fever patients were taken into this study. Presenting symptoms included mainly fever and rigor. The peripheral blood of these patients revealed different haematological changes, like normocytic anaemia, leucopenia, bicytopenia and pancytopenia. Pancytopenia was in 127 (6.3%) patients. Bone marrow was active in all patients. Histiocytes are increased in activity in 55 (43%) cases; only in 17 (13%) cases haemophagocytosis was seen. No granuloma seen in all cases. Majority of the patients regain the normal blood parameters values within two to eight weeks.
Conclusion: Bone marrow study has no clear role for explanation the peripheral blood pancytopenia in typhoid fever. There is no indication for bone marrow study for culture positive typhoid fever with pancytopenia, unless the pancytopenia is persistent. Most probably the pancytopenia is caused by peripheral blood factor.
Key Words: Typhoid fever; pancytopenia; Bone marrow.
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Conclusions|: This study have showed that perineal repair using continuous suturing technique is superior to interrupted technique by causing less maternal morbidity , early onset of breast feeding, less cost, also with better cosmetic acceptance.
Results: After intubation systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly (p<0.05) in both groups in compared to post-induction values but there were no significant increase in blood pressure if compared to base line values only significant increase in heart rate.
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Summary of Case : A 43 year old man presented to the emergency department with a one day history of headache and nausea without appreciable neurological deficits. He was discharged with a diagnosis of gastroenteritis and treated symptomatically until he returned the next day with radiating arm pain and paresthesia. Neurologic evaluation identified a mild imprecise dermatomal primary sensory loss in his left arm. Head CT identified a left cerebellar infarction. MRI clarified the presence of a cerebellar stroke as well as a notable spinal cord infarction in the anterior spinal artery (ASA) territory. CTA showed occlusion of the left vertebral artery and non visualization of the ASA.
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Background and Objectives: To compare the efficacy of topical benzyl benzoate lotion with permethrin solution in addition to adjuvant crotamiton cream with the aim of determining better and improved treatment option for scabies.
Subject and Methods: The trial included 150 patients aged 6–65 years with scabies who attended the Al-qudis health center for family medicine in Mosul city. Inclusion criteria: those experiencing itching and presence of burrows or secondary lesions that were characteristic of scabies on at least three sites of predilection for scabies. Exclusion criteria: serious illness, pregnant or lactating women, treatment of scabies within the preceding 1 month and suspicious cases. Eligible subjects were divided to 2 groups both of them received topical treatment consisted of a thorough bath using sulfur soap followed by application of benzyl benzoate lotion 25% for adult and 12.5%for children to all parts of the body, repeated daily for 3 consecutive days and after 1 week, the. While the other group applied permethrine 5% solution as the same manner of benzyl benzoate lotion, washed after 12 hours and repeated after 1 week. In addition, topical treatment involved application of crotamiton cream (40g) mixed with betamethasone G cream (15g) as adjuvant antiscabietic therapy and antipruritic for both groups, in addition to symptomatic treatment of itching. Where possible, close contacts of subjects with scabies were examined and those clinically confirmed to have scabies were invited to enroll in the study. All subjects and close contacts were treated simultaneously. Subjects were followed up at 2 weeks to assess compliance and examine the patients those with new or persistent lesions and pruritus were treated but excluded .Criteria for cure were absence of pruritus and of new lesions.
Results: At 2-weeks post-treatment, the treatment was effective in 70(87.5%) patients in the permethrin group and 45(64%) patients in the benzyl benzoate group, the difference between them was significant (p< 0.0001).The 35 patients who had not improved were excluded
Conclusion: The diagnosis of scabies requires a willing physician and a cooperative patient with increased awareness to achieve good control and successfully treatment of this health problem. Moreover, improved personal hygiene may prevent or control the spread of scabies. It is recommended that each patient with scabies should be first advised permethrin topically in addition to symptomatic treatment of itching. Since scabies is familial or house hold infection, we emphasize the treatment of all family members and all close contacts at the same time.
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Background and objectives: The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is an emerging concern in the environmental community. Sorption interactions of three high �C use antibiotics [Cefotaxime (CEF), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), and Oxytetracycline (OTC)] with soils from Erbil governorate were investigated. This study was aimed to find out the fate and the behavior of antibiotics in our local environment, no such study has been done in Kurdistan.
Methods: Adsorption of the selected antibiotics on the studied soil samples were conducted using batch equilibrium techniques. The samples were analyzed by HPLC and UV visible spectrophotometer.
Results: Adsorption data were correlated with linear distribution, Freundlich and Langmuir models. Freundlich model being found to provide the best fit of the experimental data (R2 ��0.856). The results showed that the three studied antibiotics were found to adsorb strongly to the soils with 50- 76% adsorbed under all experimental conditions. Values of equilibrium constant were increased with temperature. Values of standard Free energy change were in the range -10.412 to -2.089, -14.102 to -2.721, and -25.952 to - 1.414 KJmol-1, for CEF, CIP and OTC respectively. Values of standard enthalpy change followed the range 51.043-74.081, 38.535-85.476, and 52.561- 73.512 Kjmol-1, for Cef, Cip and OTC respectively.
Conclusions: Values of standard Free energy change were negative and increased with temperature, indicating that at all experimental temperatures: the interactions of antibiotics with soils were spontaneous with a high preference of the soil surface and the adsorption occurred through a bonding mechanism. The results of effect of temperature and thermodynamic parameters confirm the adsorption process to be endothermic in nature.
Keywords: Sorption equilibria, antibiotics, thermodynamic, soil, equilibrium constant, Freundlich isotherm.
Background: Human cAMP was found to act as a 2nd.messenger responsible for intercellular effects. Its altered levels can exhibit a characteristic response to the metabolic behavior of the cell. Increases in cAMP levels were leads to a variety of responses, dependent on the nature of the target cell. This increases can diffuses to extracellular fluids and can be useful in diagnostic purposes.
Methods: Twenty four hours urine samples of the human leukemia patients (no.86) and normal healthy control were collected, these were includes male and female. 90 samples of healthy controlled were used for comparing data obtained. Levels of cAMP were determined in both groups. Identification of the purified cAMP peaks were achieves using UV, TLC and HPLC analysis.
Results: An elevation in purified cAMP levels were found to be of 15.87 � 2.4 �mole/24 hours and 20.13 � 0.881 �mole/24 hours of both Normal and leukaemic patient�s urine. Identification of the cAMP purified peaks were, reflects the following data: the Rf value of both groups was the same as compared with the standered cAMP used, the retention times of the cAMP peaks were the same, and the UV analysis in different PH values were the same.
Conclusion: Hormones that increase hepatic (glycogen) or renal (parathyroid hormone) cAMP bring about an increased level of the cyclic nucleotide in blood and urine, respectively. Although this may be useful for diagnostic purposes, extracellular cAMP has little or no biologic activity in mammals, several studies have demonstrated that determination of cAMP in 24 hour urine specimens might be useful for the clinical investigation of endocrine disorders, especially of the parathyroid [8-13] and thyroid gland [14,15 ]. The evaluation of leukaemic urinary cAMP found in this study can give an obvious idea about the metabolic behavior of abnormal cell proliferation.
Keywords : cAMP, Human urine.
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Background: Paronychia is inflammation of the skin that surrounds a fingernail or toenail. It may be acute or chronic and is most commonly caused by infection with either bacteria or fungi.
Patients and Methods: this paper will look for the possible bacteria and/or fungi that cause Paronychia; 112 Patients with paronychia were subjected to questionnaire; cultures were done for swabs from pus or discharge, and the cultivated microorganisms were further identified by biochemical methods. Control group, age and sex matched with patient group, subjected to the same questionnaire. Nasal swabs were taken from both groups for bacterial culture and identification.
Results: staphylococcus aureus, candida albicans, klebseilla, and streptococcus pyogens are the only microorganisms identified, of which staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent one. There is a significant association between Staphylococcal nasal carries and paronychia, though all other parameters including age, sex, occupation, residency, marital status, and exposure to wetness, and family history showed a non-significant association as predisposing factors. Some of infections were unilateral, while others were bilateral. The infection might involve only one finger or toe, or it might involve more than one location. There is a significant association between klebseilla infection with chronicity and disfigurement of nail.
Conclusion: factors including repeated exposure to wetness, occupation, history of local trauma, and family history of paronychia are not significant risk factors in etiology of paronychia, while persons who are nasal carriers for Staphylococcus aureus might represent a risk factor for paronychia. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative agent of paronychia, though other microorganisms might be implicated as causative agents. Infections due to klebsiella species tend to be chronic and complicated by disfigurement of nails. There is surprisingly no children involvement by paronychia which should further studied.
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We describe an 11-year-old female child presenting with a congenital superior lumbar hernia, this was diagnosed clinically and supported on radiological basis. It was successfully treated by surgery.
Key words: Lumbar Hernia, Congenital
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